Friday, March 27, 2009

Christianity and Globalism

In John Ralston Saul’s book, "The Collapse of Globalism and the Reinvention of the World", the reader is inundated with the author’s views on the historical growth of the concept of globalism and the consequences of that growth. In addition, Saul argues of the slow, but inevitable demise of globalism. Saul defines, after much debate and analysis, the notion of globalization as “an inevitable form of internationalism in which civilization is reformed from the perspective of economic leadership. The leadership here is provided not by people, but by the innate force of economics at work; that is the marketplace.”[1] It is significant to note, that Saul includes in his definition the thoughts of Thomas Friedman. Specifically, the idea of the “diminished competence of states”[2]. Friedman envisioned “the inexorable integration of markets, nation-states and technologies to a degree never witnessed before.”[3] John Ralston Saul bases his inevitable “collapse of globalism” theory on globalism’s propensity to result in extreme profitability/wealth for some nations, as juxtaposed to the mounting debt/poverty in so-called “Third World” nations. As a follower of Jesus Christ, if proven correct this innate injustice/inequality would be at the heart of my opposition to globalism. Consequently, it would seem to demand my participation in the destruction of such an economic concept. However, it is my observation that Saul ultimately fails to convince the reader of not only of the collapse of globalism, but whether it is inherently evil. In fact, I submit that globalism is alive and well and the premature reports of its demise are greatly exaggerated by academics and theologians alike.
The ultimate question theologians/ministers must ask is whether globalism is a tool or catalyst for the oppression of people utilized by imperial powers. Specifically, the oppression of the so-called “Third World” nation-states” In contrast, the theologian must inquire whether globalism is in fact a runaway train or economic force that inevitably will run its course, but nevertheless is beneficial to bringing together a global community. Consequently, eradicating and destroying barriers between varying cultures. If the latter be the case, is globalism the key to the annihilation of such worldwide problems as poverty and poor health care?
Saul’s argument concerning the potential abuse of globalism is surprisingly illustrated by that fairly new global invention called the internet. Saul reports that this “version of modernity is little more that a prolongation of the original Industrial Revolution idea of technology as an argument for exclusion. It is often an artless and disingenuous reworking of the old imperial technological determinism that Sven Lindquist described: “Technical superiority provides a natural right to annihilate the enemy even when he is defenseless”. Annihilate can mean anything from rationalize to marginalize to exclude to let fall into poverty to starve to kill. The heart of the global argument as an inevitability driven by technology probably lies in the continuing struggle over the internet and intellectual property”.[4] I contend with simplicity that any tool can be used for the destruction of humankind. However, I submit that the same tool can be utilized to build a beloved community. This is true of the internet and the economic force called globalism. I submit that economic forces are controlled and determined by the decisions of individuals These forces aren’t analogous to uncontrollable forces of nature such as tornadoes or hurricanes , but are forces that are controlled by individuals or nation states for their own oftentimes selfish needs and purposes. Globalism is not an “inevitable” or uncontrollable occurrence. Globalism is an economic concept, that is controllable and can be either fortified or destroyed by individuals. Yes, John Ralston Saul is correct that the economic force of globalism is currently under the firm grip of “transnationals”. However, Saul couples this notion with the “arrival of the false rationality of managerialism”.[5] This blatantly real concept of managerialism caught my attention. Saul historically places the birth of this managerial class and globalization at a gathering in Davos, a town in the Swiss Alps in January of 1971. This was an attempt “to galvanize the European business technocracy into stronger competition with the United States.”[6] In my estimation, this concept of manegerialism opens the door to individual responsibility and removes the concept of globalism out of the hands of ambiguous conglomerations/corporations called “transnationals”. It firmly puts the control of globalism in the oftentimes soiled hands of individual practitioners of this “rationality of managerialism” as defined by Saul. Saul quotes M.G.Smith's words to illustrate this concept of managerialism “the basic fallacy of the view that all-dominating bureaucracy is a more rational or superior organ of government than a controlled bureaucracy.”[7] He fortifies this statement with the words of Albert Camus’ “Nothing being true or false, good or bad, the measurement will be the most efficient, that is the strongest. The world will no longer be divided between just and unjust, but master and slaves”.[8] The managerial class became the “servant of inevitability”. This notion of the rationality of managerialism has divided the world into masters and slaves and runs in direct opposition to the spirit of the gospel of Jesus The Christ . The bible says “no person can serve two masters.” As a minister of the gospel, if one is to serve only God. Then it behooves one to dismantle any organization, concept that is not rooted in “loving thy neighbor as thyself”. This belief is clearly manifested in the personhood of Jesus Christ. Can I see love and justice in the concept of globalism ?
Saul’s article reminded me of the need to constantly analyze and observe my social, political, and economic context, particularly from a global perspective. Also, it reminded me that if I am to practice my biblical hermeneutics, it is essential to understand the currents and undercurrents of a global economy. It must be said that this doesn’t mean that one should reduce themselves to a “prosperity gospel’. In my opinion, which is an prime example of poor hermenutics coupled with inferior exegesis and rooted in an arrogance , that utilizes the biblical text as a personal sounding board. No, it points the Christian, as Robin Lovin notes in his book Christian Ethics to Reinhold Niebuhr’s call for Christians to “give up their appealing moral idealism for a more tough-minded Christian Realism that would pay more attention to the real dynamics of social change as well as ideals of peace and justice”. ”[9] Lovin is on the mark when he says that “Christians do not stand at the edge of their society, testing its temperature by a pure biblical standard to decide whether or not it is safe to jump in. We are in it with both feet…..”[10] We must impact the lives of the global community. This is not the “other” , this is us. Is it too big of a dream. The realization of a global world community that is concerned and dictated by true brotherhood and sisterhood. Is it just a thought on a philosopher’s page? Is it just a dream written by a poet. Can it become a reality? It is the church’s mission to make the dream of a world free from oppression
[1] The Collapse of GlobalismP 19
[2] p19
[3] p19
[4] p95
[5] p92
[6] p66
[7] p93
[8] p93
[9] P109
[10] P109

Wednesday, October 1, 2008

Review of "Reversed Thunder" by Eugene Peterson

In the book Reversed Thunder “The Revelation of John & the Praying Imagination”, Eugene H. Peterson writes a remarkable analysis and interpretation on the biblical text Revelation. Historically, the book of Revelation has been described as difficult to interpret by theologians. Consequently, preachers and teachers of the bible have tended to ignore or avoid this segment of scripture. In stark contrast, those who choose the difficult task of interpreting this text have diverse and drastically different opinions. However, Peterson with powerful vivid illustrations and analysis opens and simplifies the interpretation of Revelation to his readers. This book is a must read for any preacher, teacher and scholar of the Holy Writ. Specifically, I highly recommend this book for any reader of Revelation, who has been bombarded with confusing and confound translations of this remarkable text.
Peterson defines revelation and apocalypse at the outset of his book. “St. John’s word for what he writes is revelation, in Greek, apokalupsis. The word becomes both title to his book and a description of all scripture.” “Apocalypse means the revelation of what took place in the Incarnation hidden in a humble form. The word means literally, “to uncover.”[I] “All scripture is, in one way or another, apocalypse, or revelation.”[II] It is significant to note that the author takes the time to emphasize the difference between revelation and prophecy. “In parallel with the word revelation is the word prophecy. The revelation announced in verse 1 is described as prophecy in verse 3.The two words are parallel, but there is a nuance of difference. The emphasis in revelation is on seeing something, in prophecy on hearing something. God acts among us and we see what he does(revelation).God speaks to us and we hear what he says(prophecy).[III]
Eugene Peterson comprehensively describes essential pericopes of Revelation and reduces them to a common denominator. This common denominator is Jesus Christ. He states about the book of Revelation, that “first of all, it is a proclamation by and about Jesus Christ. Items regarding future and past are introduced insofar as they are useful in providing material that is expositional of Jesus Christ. The Revelation is nothing if not focused on Jesus Christ.”[IV] For me, as a Christian reader, this is an essential ingredient if the writer is to have any validity in his interpretation of Revelation.
Peterson’s word usage and interpretative skills enlightens and empowers the twenty-first century’s reader’s faith and imagination. In Walter Brueggemann like fashion, reminiscent of Brueggemann’s concept of “prophetic imagination”, Peterson weaves a remarkable foundation on which to interpret Revelation. For example, Breuggeman stated in his book The Prophetic Imagination that his “accent on imagination has turned out to be exactly correct, for what is now required is that a relatively powerless prophetic voice must find imaginative ways that are rooted in the text but that freely and daringly move from the text toward concrete circumstance.” This is precisely the methodology that Peterson utilizes to interpret Revelation into a useful “concrete” hermeneutic for the present day reader. Specifically, Peterson frames his analysis under the concept of a “praying imagination”.[V] He states that “Einstein once said that the imagination is more important than intelligence, meaning that there can be no meaningful use of intelligence unless there is imaginative perception.”[VI] I submit that it is the center of our imagination that God’s speaks to the endless possibilities that are present with us. If it wasn’t for the imagination of countless individuals, the world would be still living in the dark ages. The center of the imagination has served to create flying machines reducing the time period for travel, cures for numerous diseases thought un-curable and has unlocked the door of an alternative reality that was trapped in the dreams of our ancestors.
Peterson’s conclusions didn’t occur in a vacuum. Eugene Peterson reflects upon the development of his concept and the impact of the work of Hans Urs von Balthasar and Charles Williams on his world view and analysis of scripture. He states that “Balthasar, especially in his book Prayer, has taught me to be contemplative before the Revelation, to pray the text. Williams, in his novels, poetry, and criticism showed me the workings of the imagination as a means of grace and convinced me that an exercised imagination is essential to a full-bodied and full-souled life in Christ.”[VII]
Under these parameters, Peterson entitles his book “Reversed Thunder” which is based on a daunting image in the book of Revelation. that in Revelation 8:3-4, it speaks of an angel who stood at the altar with a golden censer, who was given incense to mix with the prayers of the saints. Peterson utilizes this image to explain “reversed thunder”. Peterson writes that “he mixed the prayers of the Christians with incense (which cleansed them from impurities) and combined them with fire (God’s spirit) from the altar. Then he put it all in the censer and threw it over heaven’s ramparts. The censer, plummeting through the air; landed on earth. On impact there were “peals of thunder, voices, flashes of lightning, and an earthquake” (Rev.8:5). The prayers which had ascended, unremarked by the journalists of the day, returned with immense force in George Herbert’s phrase, as “reversed thunder” .Prayer reenters history with incalculable effects. Our earth is shaken daily by it”.[VIII]
In keeping with the eschatological theme found in the book of Revelation, Peterson categorizes his interpretation into chapters beginning with “the last word”. He states that “eschatology is the most pastoral of all the theological perspectives, showing how the ending impinges on the present in such ways that the truth of the gospel is verified in life “in the middle”. It shows us that believers are not set “at the high noon of life, but at the dawn of a new day at the point where night and day, things passing and things to come, grapple with each other.”[IX] This isn’t just empty rhetoric, Peterson includes the last words on a wide gamut of concepts and issues relevant not only to the church and individuals of yesterday, but today. These are inclusive of the last words on Christ, church, scripture, worship, evil, prayers, witness, politics, judgment, salvation and heaven. Due to the guidelines of this essay, I will restrict my responses to those I find most essential to our present and future reality.
Eugene Peterson’s commences his analysis appropriately regarding the “last word on scripture”. The author points to the ultimate goal of scripture or God’s written word... Peterson writes that “Words link spirits. Reduced to writing, and left there. Words no longer do what they are designed to do –create and maintain personal relationships of intelligence and love.”[X] The scripture allows the reader to form a closer relationship to God. This is the primary purpose of scripture to open up the reader’s imagination, so that their faith will be fortified and strengthened through Jesus Christ. Also, the scripture empowers and enables the reader through this relationship with God to be able to foresee an “alternative vision.” Also, he writes that “our capacity for language is the most distinctive thing about us as humans. Words are that by which we articulate we are.”[XI] However, Peterson deftly illustrates how Revelations significance lies not only in its words, but beyond the written word, that taking the reader to a form of art and visualization. “Anything can make us look, says poet Archibald MacLeish, “only art makes us see,” The Revelation makes us see”.” I turned to see the voice (Rev. 1:12).”[XII] That is an extraordinary observation by the author. It is indeed through the written word of the scripture, that the eyes of the reader are opened to the magnificence of God, beyond our imaginations.
[I] P18
[II] p19
[III] p20
[IV] Reversed Thunder p 26
[V] Walter Brueggemann, The Prophetic Imagination(Minneapolis: Fortress Press),xii
[VI] p13
[VII] p.xiv
[VIII] Reversed Thunder p 88
[IX] p9
[X] p12
[XI] p14
[XII] p14

Thursday, September 25, 2008

"The Prophetic Imagination" by Walter Brueggemann

In the magnificent book, The Prophetic Imagination by Walter Brueggemann, the reader is impacted by the author’s unique paradigm concerning the interpretation of the biblical text. Brueggemann deftly sets new parameters for biblical scholars to interpret scripture, specifically the prophetic texts. In this revised second edition, the author illustrates the restraints of the utilization of historical criticism by biblical scholars. For instance, the author speaks of the environment of biblical study during the first edition of his book in 1978. Brueggemann states that “at that time, however scripture study generally awaited the articulation of methods that moved beyond or underneath historical criticism of a conventional kind. Specifically, social-scientific criticism, stunningly introduced into Old Testament studies by Norman Gottwald in 1979-the year after my book - opened the way to see texts as ideological statements evoked by and evoking specific forms of social action and policy, social authorization, and social criticism.” [I] In addition, he states that “in like manner, critical study of the Old Testament in 1978 still awaited the emergence of rhetorical criticism and its appreciation of the generative, constitutive power of imagination.”[II] It is my opinion, that Brueggemann reveals his hermeneutical position with these words “one consequence of this new awareness is that biblical texts, in particular prophetic texts, could be seen as poetic scenarios of alternative social reality that might lead to direct confrontation with “presumed, taken-for-granted worlds” (the old liberal assumption).”[III] In my opinion,the “prophetic imagination” is a liberation hermeneutic.
Bruggemanns liberating concept is grounded by his notion of “imagination”. He states that his “accent on imagination has turned out to be exactly correct, for what is now required is that a relatively powerless prophetic voice must find imaginative ways that are rooted in the text but that freely and daringly move from the text toward concrete circumstance.”[IV] This moves Brueegemann’s concept from behind the ivory towers of academia to practical usage by prophetic voices, so as to impact “social practice”. Therefore, the prophetic voice becomes an influence on the social constructs that hinder the liberation of all people


[I] Walter Brueggemann, The Prophetic Imagination(Minneapolis: Fortress Press),x
[II] Walter Brueggemann, The Prophetic Imagination(Minneapolis: Fortress Press),x
[III] Walter Brueggemann, The Prophetic Imagination(Minneapolis: Fortress Press),x

[IV] Walter Brueggemann, The Prophetic Imagination(Minneapolis: Fortress Press),xii

Friday, September 12, 2008

Why Would Jesus Cry ? A Reason to Cry.

The text concerning the death and raising of Lazarus was at the forefront of my mind as I was writing my most recent sermon. Why would the one who is the beginning and the end cry.The bottom line is that Jesus loves us and is in touch with our humanity ! Jesus crys with us and for us. Like Mary and Martha in the text we must rush to Jesus. Jesus asks us where have we buried our faith as he asked the sisters where they have buried him(Lazarus). Like the sisters we should say "come and see' where we have laid him ".Wow. let Jesus see where you have buried your faith, Then Look up ! Jesus says "didn't I tell you if you believe you will see the glory of God. Keep believing, hold on to your faith, keep believing and we shall see the glory of the Lord.That is the truth ! Perhaps, you buried your faith at the gravesite and death of a loved one, or upon a diagnosis or prognosisi of a doctor, or in a court room or school room.Wherever you left it, show Jesus and believe and YOU will someday see the glory of God, just wait on the Lord ! He may not come when you want to, but he comes right on time.It's in the text !

Tuesday, August 26, 2008

The Democratic convention on Monday night was one to watch. The tribute to Sen. Kennedy was marvelous and Michelle Obama proved she will be an excellent first lady.She was articulate in illustrating and imaging Obama as a family man with the ability to lead a nation. The "dream still lives and hope never dies" ! powerful words indeed.

Monday, August 25, 2008

The Liberating Truth

The search for truth is eternal.What is truth? This blog will engage and challenge our thoughts concerning our journey to find truth. Truth can be found.It is not something that can't be grasped in our life times. I invite others to share their thoughts on a myriad of issues. Is there a right and wrong or is their vaguness and an eternal cloud that veils our senses from ever experiencing the turht in our existential existence. The bible says "the truth will set you free". For those of us who seek total freedom the search for the truth is a daily endeavor. For any question we have in life, there is an answer. This is truly liberating. For full disclousure, I am a christian, I believe that truth is found in Jesus Christ.